We continue to follow the latest scientific research on the beneficial properties of pine nut oil. Today we’d like to discuss a study conducted by South Korean scientists in 2021. The purpose of this work was to determine the mechanisms by which pine nut oil helps to lose weight. It was found that pine nut oil helps to lose weight due to several features: high content of pinolenic acid, influence on the biosynthesis of neutral lipids and influence on the expression level of some specific genes.
The scientists set up an experiment on laboratory mice and also conducted a meta-analysis of reliable scientific databases such as PubChem and PubMed. As part of the experiment, mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD). It resulted in weight gain. The mice were divided into two control groups: one received only the HFD diet, while the other received pine nut oil in addition to the same diet at doses of 822 and 1644 mg/kg. The experiment lasted 7 weeks. After this period, scientists conducted a series of measurements:
- fat mass
- the size of adipocytes (the main type of cells that make up adipose tissue – fat)
- serum lipid profiles
- PPAR-γ expression in adipocytes *
- level of sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1c **
* PPAR-γ is a specific receptor associated with genes that are responsible for susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus, predisposition to weight gain, and accumulation of adipose tissue.
** (SREBP)-1c is a gene that affects glucose metabolism and lipid production.
Thus, scientists analyzed the effect of taking pine nut oil on body weight at all levels: from biochemistry to genetics. The genes were selected on the basis of an analysis of hundreds of scientific publications. The influence of these particular genes on the accumulation of adipose tissues is not questioned in scientific circles.
Oral administration of pine nut oil to HFD mice has been found to have the following effects:
- reduces body fat mass
- reduces the amount of fat in tissues
- reduces white adipose tissue mass
- reduces the size of adipocytes
- improves cholesterol levels
- attenuates HFD-induced changes in PPAR-γ and SREBP-1c expression.
Scientists concluded that many of these effects are due to the high content of pinolenic acid in pine nut oil. This acid is involved in the biosynthesis of neutral lipids and thus helps in the prevention of obesity. However, the authors of the study claim that the fat regulatory mechanisms of pine nut oil also have other explanations that should be carefully studied in the future.
Scientists have found that carotenoids reduce the risk of head and neck cancer (cancer of the mouth, pharynx, and larynx).  Carotenoids also prevent the manifestation of the human papillomavirus, one of the factors affecting the development of cancer. There are also studies showing that taking carotenoids reduces the risk of breast cancer. 
Thus, scientists have established a complex positive effect of carotenoids on the body. Pine nut oil enriched with sea buckthorn is rich in carotenoids — it’s the nutraceutical support your body needs!
 Jin SC, Kim MH, Choi Y, Nam YK, Yang WM. Fat regulatory mechanisms of pine nut oil based on protein interaction network analysis.
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